Technology Trends: Technologies to learn in 2021

In this Blog, I am going to explain some technologies which are trending and worth to learn in 2021. Let’s discuss technology trends in 2021:

Tags: Development Technologies Golang Python JavaScript Docker Kubernetes Travis CI Learning

1) Programming Languages

The Internet is full of a wide variety of languages, from functional, procedural to object-oriented languages. If we have to choose a programming language to learn, the hottest ones are Golang, Python, and JavaScript.  These are most helpful for those who want to go in backend development, Machine learning, data science, and full-stack development. JavaScript is fully capable of developing real-time web applications, plus you can use the same language for both frontend and backend development.

Python

If you are a beginner or new to programming and you want to go into Machine learning or data science, you should consider learning Python; it’s easy, simple, and elegant. You can build powerful data-driven applications with Python. Python is a dynamically typed, interpreted high-level programming language. It’s the first choice for beginners due to its simple syntax and fully OOPs support.

Golang

Golang last and the final frontier, Golang would become a lot easier if you already knew a programming language; it’s a relatively new language, so it comes inbuilt with various powerful optimization and supporting current technological trends. Golang is designed by Google to imagine the scale of problems it was designed to solve. It will become the preferred language for the backend system due to its various advanced features like built-in Concurrency, goroutines channels, etc. Since it’s statically typed, you will get speed improvement in general applications, which is an important point for most web applications.

JavaScript

JavaScript or ECMAScript is the trending choice of many full-stack developers; since you need to learn only one language for both frontend and backend technologies, you can mix React JS for any frontend framework of JS, and you have a fully dynamic real-time web application in JavaScript. For modern dynamic web applications, we need to add javascript. In 2010 the Nodejs that is a runtime javascript development environment came out. Soon, various developers joined the trend of developing applications in NodeJs using various frameworks popular among them is ExpressJS.

Note: NodeJS is a javascript runtime environment, while ExpressJS is a framework written in javascript for developing backend web applications.

If you are into web development, we will build simple hello world web applications in all the above language, which you can find lower section of this post. It will give you a basic idea of how the applications are written in all these languages; we will be using Flask framework for Python, express framework for JavaScript, net/http library for golang. 

2) Version Control

If you want to go into development, you have to learn a version control system, and our favorite choice is Git. Managing versions of the software will become really difficult in the absence of Version Control systems. In most of the fresher jobs, even in an internship, you are required to know about the version control system, these will be added advantage for you.

3) Unit Testing

Untested code is as good as half-baked bread. Not good for eating right! The same thing goes for code; if you write a small program, then it becomes necessary to write some kind of unit testing for this so that we don’t get caught up in unexpected work and can really be sure that code is working as expected. Plus, it makes your code neat and ready for further development. Unit testing our code is not hard; we just are lazy to do it.

4) DevOps tools

This is semi-optional, but in the real world, most of the development work and applications are shifted into containers. Our favorite container technology is Docker; it’s a skill that will be used in various modes of software development; the sooner we acquire it, the better it will be for our future career growth. At some point in time, you might be asked to containerize your application; then, you will remember this blog, that perhaps we should have learned it. So quit procrastinating and get your at least docker basics done right now.

Web Application in Different Programming Languages

We are going to build simple hello world web applications in all the above language. It will give you a basic idea of how the applications are written in all these languages; we will be using Flask framework for Python, express framework for JavaScript, net/http library for golang. 

Python:

Web application code in Python

  • This post assumes you have Python installed and configured already; if you have not done so, you can grab it from here https://www.python.org/.
  • Open terminal and type pip install flask.
  • Once you have the flask installed in your system, just copy-paste the below code.
from flask import Flask
app = Flask(__name__)
   @app.route('/')
def hello_world():
    return 'Hello, World!'
if __name__==”__main__”:
	app.run()
  • Save the above code in a file app.py and run it from the python terminal using the command python app.py
  • Open a web browser and goto http://127.0.0.1:5000, and you should see hello world there.
  • Congratulations, you just made a web application with Python. Piece of cake, right!

Golang:

Web application code in Golang

  • We assume that you have to Go installed and configured on your system.
  • Open your favorite editor and type the following code.
package main
import (
	"fmt"
	"net/http"
)
func index(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request){
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hello, World! from Golang.")
}
func main() {
	http.HandleFunc("/", index)
	http.ListenAndServe(":5000", nil)
}
  • Open command and run go run app.go
  • Again go to the browser, and you will see your favorite lines in the browser when visiting http://localhost:5000.

JavaScript:

Web application in JavaScript:

  • We need NodeJS and expressJS installed in our system for the below code snippet to work.
  • Create a file named app.js and paste the below code in it.
Const express = require(‘express’);
const port = 5000;

const app = express();

app.get(‘/’, function(req, res){
	res.send(“Hello, World! From Javascript.”)
})

app.listen(port, function(err){
	
	if(err){
	console.log(“Error occurred”);
	}
});
  • You may have started to see a pattern till now; see the code from the above code snippets.
  • You will note that all the languages offer slightly different syntax and achieve the same task of creating a web application. In all the cases, we are creating a file and then running the file from the command prompt or a particular program.

Code samples:

All the above code samples are also available at https://github.com/abhinayy0/hellowebapp.

Here you will find 3 files named app.go, app.py, app.js, respectively, and all those files contain the same code as given above.

Differences between the above code samples in different programming languages:

Deep dive into web application code, the subtle differences to note between the code given above:

In JavaScript and Python we are using an external library like Flask and Express, but in Golang, we are using a built-in package. Since Golang is new and designed for web applications in the first place, it will give you.

Many features are required for high-performance web applications in-house, meaning we don’t need to install any third-party library. Golang offers built-in support for Concurrency, which is essential for most modern web applications.

Conclusion:

Here, we have discussed the technologies which gonna rule in the upcoming decade. but, I would like to add a final note to this discussion technologies are evolving and developing everyday so it is not possible to expect the technology trends. Besides the above discussed technologies, there are several other technologies available on the web and used by the some tech giants. So, it is completely depend on your area of interest you can choose any of the technologies to learn.